Stroke – Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

A cerebrovascular accident is a medical term of stroke. CVA is a sudden onset of neurological dysfunction resulting from an abnormality in cerebral circulation, either by a blockage or a rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. In case of stroke, the brain tissue do not get enough oxygen and nutrients, thus they begin to die in minutes.

A stroke is an emergency condition, therefore prompt treatment is crucial. Early action can help reduce brain damage and further complications

There are two main types of cerebrovascular accident, or stroke:

  1. Ischemic stroke: caused by a blockage in blood vessels due to blood clotting in brain arteries or to a block of cholesterol. (83% of the total cases)
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke: occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures causing bleeding. This rupture happens either due to an injury, hypertension, or weakness of blood vessels. (13% of the total cases)

Risk factors and Causes for a Stroke – CVA

  1. Extreme anger as well as sadness.
  2. Diabetes and glucose metabolism.
  3. High blood pressure (hypertension).
  4. Smoking.
  5. Cardiac diseases.
  6. High cholesterol level and also high triglyceride level (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia) .
  7. Lifestyle factors (obesity, lack of physical activity, diet, and also emotional stress)
  8. Alcoholism.
  9. Heredity, a family history as well as a genetic tendency for stroke.
  10. Oral contraceptives.
  11. Migraine.
  12. Age, gender, race, as well as ethnicity.
  13. Atherosclerosis.
  14. A bleeding in one of the blood vessels of the brain.
  15. A head injury.


  1. Weakness or paralysis of muscles in one side of the body. Inability to close one eye, difficulty swallowing, and running saliva.
  2. Trouble with speaking and understanding. The patient may not be able to pronounce words correctly and also his response might not be related to the question/ topic.
  3. A sudden headache, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.
  4. Blurry or darkened vision in one eye.
  5. Trouble walking is a common symptoms for a stroke.
  6. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): it has the same symptoms but may disappear in 24 hours.
  7. Confusion.
  8. Anisocoria.

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